“The history of ‘Basque literature’ is the history of diglossia and, therefore, of at least two literatures: one expressed by Basque subaltern (oppressed) classes in their language, euskara, which mainly constitutes an oral tradition, and the other written by Basque elites in Spanish, Latin, French, etc.
Even today Basque literature in euskara plays a symbolic role: to represent a Basque Country where the majority speaks and writes in other state languages. Euskara, used by a minority, remains subordinate.
This double literature remains at the core of the Basque Country’s history and culture.”
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